Summary for : (2) Pallas

DynT.TT.BT T.L B T.DDensity (g/cm^3)Δρ/ρDiameter (km)ΔD/DMass (kg)ΔM/MRefAvg.M
MBABB- | -B2.91 ± 0.40   (A)14 %517.3 ± 16.13.1 %2.11e+20 ± 2.13e+1910 %SEVM
MBABB- | -B2.92 ± 0.78   (C)27 %511.4 ± 10.42.0 %2.04e+20 ± 5.30e+1926 %Sw.avg
MBAB2.86 ± 0.32   (A)11 %514.4 ± 19.13.7 %2.04e+20 ± 4.00e+182 %C?

Average asteroid densities (g/cm^3):
C = 1.3 ± 0.6, B = 2.4 ± 0.5, S = 2.7 ± 0.5, M = 3.5 ± 1.0, P = 2.8 ± 1.6, X = 1.9 ± 0.8, Xc = 4.9 ± 0.9, Xk = 4.2 ± 0.7 (Ref)

Object is a Gaia target for mass determination !

Additional resources:
3D Model | JPL New Horizons | Minor Planet Center | Wikipedia (these auto-generated links might not work)

Note: The density estimates have been ranked from (A) to (E), corresponding to the relative error: (B) less than 20%, (C) between 20 and 50%, (D) between 50 and 100%, and (E) more than 100%. (A) stands for (presumably) reliable estimates (accuracy better than 20%), based on more than 5 mass estimates and 5 diameter estimates, or a spacecraft encounter. Apparently unrealistic densities (ρ > 8) are tagged with (X).

EVM: average by using the Expected Value Method (Ref). w.avg: weighted average (with w = 1/err^2).

T.T: Tholen Tax Class. T.B: Bus & Binzel Tax Class. T T.L: S3OS2 Lazarro (Tholen) Tax Class. T.L B: S3OS2 Lazarro (Bus & Binzel) Tax Class. T.D: DeMeo Tax Class.

Ref: S = SiMDA, C = Carry (2012)


Diameter estimates

DesignationDiameter / Err (km)ΔD/DMethodYearRefNχ2Use
(2) Pallas498.07 ± 18.793.8 % STM2004D93 1.05 1
(2) Pallas502.00 ± 6.001.2 % Img-TE2009D542 6.53 2
(2) Pallas544.00 ± 18.003.3 % Img-TE2009D58 2.20 3
(2) Pallas512.00 ± 6.001.2 % KOALA2010D67 0.79 4
(2) Pallas479.81 ± 20.184.2 % STM2010D642 3.46 5
(2) Pallas523.98 ± 20.834.0 % NEATM2010D64 0.10 6
(2) Pallas539.00 ± 28.005.2 % MDM:LO2011D78 0.60 7
(2) Pallas512.59 ± 4.981.0 % STM2011D83 0.91 8
(2) Pallas544.00 ± 42.917.9 % NEATM2011D72 0.39 9
(2) Pallas544.00 ± 60.7011.2 % NEATM2011D722 0.19 10
(2) Pallas523.00 ± 10.001.9 % ADAM2017D122 0.32 11

plot, average diameter and derived density

All

Notes (N):
1: This estimate is discarded for the average diameter (and derived density) calculation in Carry (2012).
2: This estimate is discarded for the average diameter (and derived density) calculation in SiMDA (catalog).

ADAM : All-Data Asteroid Modeling. Img-TE : Triaxial ellipsoid model from images. KOALA : Combined lightcurve(s) + occultation(s) + disk-resolved image(s). MDM:LO : Multi-Data Modeling: Lightcurves + Occultations. NEATM : Near-Earth Asteroid Thermal Model. STM : Standard Thermal Model.



EVM diam. average D = (517.3 ± 16.08) km   (ΔD/D = 3%, SNR = 32.17) Derived bulk density ρ = (2.91 ± 0.40) g/cm3   (Δρ/ρ = 14%, SNR = 7.3)



References
D54(2009):Drummond, J.D., Christou, J.C., Nelson, J., 2009. Triaxial ellipsoid dimensions and poles of asteroids from AO observations at the Keck-II telescope. Icarus 202, 147–159.
D58(2009):Schmidt, B.E., Thomas, P.C., Bauer, J.M., Li, J., McFadden, L.A., Mutchler, M.J., Radcliffe, S.C., Rivkin, A.S., Russell, C.T., Parker, J.W., Stern, S.A., 2009. The Shape and Surface Variation of 2 Pallas from the Hubble Space Telescope. Science 326, 275–278.
D64(2010):Ryan, E.L., Woodward, C.E., 2010. Rectified Asteroid Albedos and Diameters from IRAS and MSX Photometry Catalogs. Astronomical Journal 140, 933–943.
D67(2010):Carry, B., Dumas, C., Kaasalainen, M., Berthier, J., Merline, W.J., Erard, S., Conrad, A.R., Drummond, J.D., Hestroffer, D., Fulchignoni, M., Fusco, T., 2010. Physical properties of (2) Pallas. Icarus 205, 460–472.
D72(2011):Masiero, J.R., Mainzer, A.K., Grav, T., Bauer, J.M., Cutri, R.M., Dailey, J., Eisenhardt, P.R.M., McMillan, R.S., Spahr, T.B., Skrutskie, M.F., Tholen, D., Walker, R.G., Wright, E.L., DeBaun, E., Elsbury, D., Gautier, IV, T., Gomillion, S., Wilkins, A., 2011. Main Belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE. I. Preliminary Albedos and Diameters. Astrophysical Journal 741, 68.
D78(2011):Ďurech, J., Kaasalainen, M., Herald, D., Dunham, D., Timerson, B., Hanuš, J., Frappa, E., Talbot, J., Hayamizu, T., Warner, B.D., Pilcher, F., Galád, A., 2011. Combining asteroid models derived by lightcurve inversion with asteroidal occultation silhouettes. Icarus 214, 652–670.
D83(2011):Usui, F., Kuroda, D., Müller, T.G., Hasegawa, S., Ishiguro, M., Ootsubo, T., Ishihara, D., Kataza, H., Takita, S., Oyabu, S., Ueno, M., Matsuhara, H., Onaka, T., 2011. Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey. Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan 63, 1117–1138.
D93(2004):Tedesco, E.F., Noah, P.V., Noah, M.C., Price, S.D., 2004. IRAS Minor Planet Survey. NASA Planetary Data System. IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0.
D122(2017):Hanuš, J., Viikinkoski, M., Marchis, F., et al., 2017. Volumes and bulk densities of forty asteroids from ADAM shape modeling. Astronomy and Astrophysics 601, A114 (2017). DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201629956


Mass estimates

DesignationMass / Err (kg)ΔM/MMethodYearRefNχ2Use
(2) Pallas2.59e+20 ± 8.00e+1931 %Deflec 1974M11220.36 1
(2) Pallas2.27e+20 ± 4.40e+1919 %Deflec 1975M11320.14 2
(2) Pallas2.78e+20 ± 4.00e+1914 %FlyBy 1989M11622.83 3
(2) Pallas3.16e+20 ± 9.94e+183 %Deflec 1999M1712112.21 4
(2) Pallas2.41e+20 ± 5.17e+1921 %Deflec 2000M2120.34 5
(2) Pallas2.33e+20 ± 5.97e+183 %Deflec 2001M231213.94 6
(2) Pallas2.14e+20 ± 7.56e+184 %Deflec 2001M290.19 7
(2) Pallas1.99e+20 ± 1.99e+181 %Deflec 2001M2534.61 8
(2) Pallas2.06e+20 ± 3.98e+182 %Deflec 2004M391.40 9
(2) Pallas2.04e+20 ± 5.97e+170 %Deflec 2005M49126.20 10
(2) Pallas2.04e+20 ± 5.57e+183 %Deflec 2006M561.45 11
(2) Pallas2.11e+20 ± 7.96e+184 %Deflec 2008M720.00 12
(2) Pallas2.04e+20 ± 1.99e+170 %Ephem 2008M701135.79 13
(2) Pallas2.01e+20 ± 2.01e+1910 %Ephem 2009M860.23 14
(2) Pallas2.22e+20 ± 5.59e+183 %Ephem 2010M934.08 15
(2) Pallas1.79e+20 ± 8.95e+185 %Deflec 2010M921212.55 16
(2) Pallas2.01e+20 ± 1.29e+196 %Deflec 2011M950.57 17
(2) Pallas2.06e+20 ± 5.07e+182 %Ephem 2011M1030.86 18
(2) Pallas2.07e+20 ± 1.70e+198 %Deflec 2011M970.05 19
(2) Pallas1.96e+20 ± 1.52e+198 %Deflec 2011M970.94 20
(2) Pallas2.06e+20 ± 1.38e+197 %Deflec 2011M970.12 21
(2) Pallas1.88e+20 ± 2.38e+1913 %Deflec 2011M970.91 22
(2) Pallas2.06e+20 ± 2.98e+181 %Ephem 2011M1002.49 23
(2) Pallas2.00e+20 ± 2.19e+181 %OrbFitN 2014M12323.02 24
(2) Pallas2.13e+20 ± 8.75e+184 %Deflec 2017M12520.06 25
(2) Pallas2.15e+20 ± 2.60e+1912 %Deflec 2017M12520.02 26
(2) Pallas2.35e+20 ± 3.04e+1913 %Deflec 2017M12520.62 27
(2) Pallas1.69e+20 ± 2.21e+1913 %Deflec 2017M12523.49 28
(2) Pallas2.17e+20 ± 2.94e+1914 %Deflec 2017M12520.04 29
(2) Pallas2.39e+20 ± 3.30e+1914 %Deflec 2017M12520.71 30
(2) Pallas1.96e+20 ± 2.84e+1914 %Deflec 2017M12520.27 31
(2) Pallas2.37e+20 ± 3.72e+1916 %Deflec 2017M12520.48 32
(2) Pallas2.41e+20 ± 3.98e+1917 %Deflec 2017M12520.56 33
(2) Pallas1.75e+20 ± 2.94e+1917 %Deflec 2017M12521.49 34
(2) Pallas3.06e+20 ± 5.89e+1919 %Deflec 2017M12522.63 35
(2) Pallas2.09e+20 ± 4.37e+1921 %Deflec 2017M12520.00 36
(2) Pallas2.45e+20 ± 5.55e+1923 %Deflec 2017M12520.37 37
(2) Pallas2.54e+20 ± 5.85e+1923 %Deflec 2017M12520.56 38
(2) Pallas3.72e+20 ± 8.57e+1923 %Deflec 2017M12523.53 39
(2) Pallas2.80e+20 ± 7.52e+1927 %Deflec 2017M12520.86 40
(2) Pallas3.16e+20 ± 8.75e+1928 %Deflec 2017M12521.45 41
(2) Pallas1.55e+20 ± 4.35e+1928 %Deflec 2017M12521.66 42
(2) Pallas4.10e+20 ± 1.25e+2031 %Deflec 2017M12522.53 43
(2) Pallas2.37e+20 ± 7.24e+1931 %Deflec 2017M12520.13 44
(2) Pallas2.62e+20 ± 8.21e+1931 %Deflec 2017M12520.40 45
(2) Pallas4.61e+20 ± 1.55e+2034 %Deflec 2017M12522.61 46
(2) Pallas2.66e+20 ± 9.54e+1936 %Deflec 2017M12520.34 47
(2) Pallas4.00e+20 ± 1.52e+2038 %Deflec 2017M12521.55 48
(2) Pallas2.39e+20 ± 1.00e+2042 %Deflec 2017M12520.08 49
(2) Pallas2.11e+20 ± 6.48e+183 %Deflec 2017M12530.00 50
(2) Pallas2.19e+20 ± 1.23e+181 %Ephem 2019M12647.68 51

plot, average mass and derived density

All

Notes (N):
1: This estimate is discarded for the average mass (and derived density) calculation in Carry (2012).
2: This estimate is discarded for the average mass (and derived density) calculation in SiMDA (catalog).
3: This estimate is an average of individual solutions listed before under the same reference (e.g. M125).

Deflec : Orbital deflection (close encounter) of one or several test asteroids (classical LSQ). Ephem : Planetary ephemeris solution. FlyBy : Spacecraft radio experiment (ranging etc. from flyby, orbiter or lander). OrbFitN : Simultaneous multi-asteroid astrometric orbit solution (similar to 'Ephem').



EVM mass average M = (2.107 ± 0.213) × 1020 kg   (ΔM/M = 10%, SNR = 9.9) Derived bulk density ρ = (2.91 ± 0.40) g/cm3   (Δρ/ρ = 14%, SNR = 7.3)



References
M17(1999):Hilton, J.L., 1999. US Naval Observatory Ephemerides of the Largest Asteroids. Astronomical Journal 117, 1077–1086.
M21(2000):Michalak, G., 2000. Determination of asteroid masses — I. (1) Ceres, (2) Pallas and (4) Vesta. Astronomy and Astrophysics 360, 363–374.
M23(2001):Goffin, E., 2001. New determination of the mass of Pallas. Astronomy and Astrophysics 365, 627–630.
M25(2001):Pitjeva, E.V., 2001. Progress in the determination of some astronomical constants from radiometric observations of planets and spacecraft. Astronomy and Astrophysics 371, 760–765.
M29(2001):Standish, E.M., 2001. Suggested GM values for Ceres, Pallas, and Vesta. Technical Report. JPL Interoffice Memorandum.
M39(2004):Pitjeva, E.V., 2004. Estimations of masses of the largest asteroids and the main asteroid belt from ranging to planets, Mars orbiters and landers, in: J.-P. Paillé (Ed.), 35th COSPAR Scientific Assembly, p. 2014.
M49(2005):Pitjeva, E.V., 2005. High-Precision Ephemerides of Planets - EPM and Determination of Some Astronomical Constants. Solar System Research 39, 176–186.
M56(2006):Konopliv, A.S., Yoder, C.F., Standish, E.M., Yuan, D.N., Sjogren, W.L., 2006. A global solution for the Mars static and seasonal gravity, Mars orientation, Phobos and Deimos masses, and Mars ephemeris. Icarus 182, 23–50.
M70(2008):Fienga, A., Manche, H., Laskar, J., Gastineau, M., 2008. INPOP06: a new numerical planetary ephemeris. Astronomy and Astrophysics 477, 315–327.
M72(2008):Baer, J., Milani, A., Chesley, S.R., Matson, R.D., 2008. An Observational Error Model, and Application to Asteroid Mass Determination, in: Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, p. 493.
M86(2009):Folkner, W.M., Williams, J.G., Boggs, D.H., 2009. The planetary and lunar ephemeris de 421. IPN Progress Report 42, 1–34.
M92(2010):Somenzi, L., Fienga, A., Laskar, J., Kuchynka, P., 2010. Determination of asteroid masses from their close encounters with Mars. Planetary and Space Science 58, 858–863.
M93(2010):Fienga, A., Manche, H., Kuchynka, P., Laskar, J., Gastineau, M., 2010. INPOP10a. Scientific Notes.
M95(2011):Baer, J., Chesley, S.R., Matson, R.D., 2011. Astrometric Masses of 26 Asteroids and Observations on Asteroid Porosity. Astronomical Journal 141, 143–155.
M97(2011):Zielenbach, W., 2011. Mass Determination Studies of 104 Large Asteroids. Astronomical Journal 142, 120–128.
M100(2011):Fienga, A., Kuchynka, P., Laskar, J., Manche, H., Gastineau, M., 2011. Asteroid mass determinations with INPOP planetary ephemerides. EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2011 , 1879.
M103(2011):Konopliv, A.S., Asmar, S.W., Folkner, W.M., Karatekin, Ö., Nunes, D.C., Smrekar, S.E., Yoder, C.F., Zuber, M.T., 2011. Mars high resolution gravity fields from MRO, Mars seasonal gravity, and other dynamical parameters. Icarus 211, 401–428.
M112(1974):Schubart, J., 1974. The Masses of the First Two Asteroids. Astronomy and Astrophysics 30, 289-292.
M113(1975):Schubart, J., 1975. The Mass of Pallas. Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 39, no. 1, Feb. 1975, p. 147, 148.
M116(1989):Standish, E. M., Hellings, R. W., 1989. A determination of the masses of Ceres, Pallas, and Vesta from their perturbations upon the orbit of Mars. Icarus, Volume 80, Issue 2, p. 326-333.
M123(2014):Goffin, E., 2014. Astrometric asteroid masses: a simultaneous determination. Astronomy & Astrophysics, Volume 565, id.A56, 8 pp.
M125(2017):Baer, J., Chesley, S.R., 2017. Simultaneous Mass Determination for Gravitationally Coupled Asteroids. The Astronomical Journal, Volume 154, Issue 2, article id. 76, 11 pp.
M126(2019):Fienga, A., et. al, 2019. INPOP19a planetary ephemeris. Notes Scientifiques et Techniques de l'Institut de mécanique céleste,